Genesis 25:19-34 NIV - Jacob and Esau - Bible Gateway

Genesis 25:19-34 NIV – Jacob and Esau – Bible Gateway – Jacob and Esau. 19 This is the account of the family line of Abraham's son Isaac. Abraham became the father of Isaac, 20 and Isaac was forty years old when he married Rebekah daughter of Bethuel the Aramean from Paddan Aram [] and sister of Laban the Aramean. (21 Isaac prayed to the Lord on behalf of his wife, because she was childless. The Lord answered his prayer, and his wife RebekahIn the 14th century, John Wycliffe made the first Bible translation into English and translated Iakobus as James. (However, in both the Old and New Testaments he arbitrarily used the name Jacob for the patriarch).The name Jacob in the Bible The one and only Old Testament Jacob is a son of Isaac and Rebekah , and twin brother of Esau (Genesis 25:26). After a battle with the Angel of YHWH he becomes arch-father Israel (Genesis 32:28).

James or Jacob in the Bible? – Biblical Archaeology Society – Jacob, also known as Israel, was the son of Isaac and Rebekah and the twin brother of the red-haired hunter Esau. At his mother's insistence, he traveled to her hometown to find a wife. There he found her nieces, Leah and Rachel. Their father, his uncle Laban, was a conniving man, getting over two decades of work as the price for his daughters. By these two women, and their slave girls, JacobBible Commentary / Produced by TOW Project The names Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob appear often as a group, because they all received covenantal promises from God and shared the same faith. But Jacob was far different from his grandfather, Abraham. Ever wily, Jacob lived much of his life according to his craftiness and ingenious wit.Jacob is the grandson of Abraham and introduced in the Bible story of Jacob and Esau. After 7 years of service, Jacob's uncle Laban tricked him into marrying his eldest daughter Leah.

James or Jacob in the Bible? - Biblical Archaeology Society

Jacob | The amazing name Jacob: meaning and etymology – Berean Literal Bible As it has been written: "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated." King James Bible As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. New King James Version As it is written, "Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated." New American Standard Bible Just as it is written: "JACOB I HAVE LOVED, BUT ESAU I HAVE HATEDStories about Jacob in the Bible begin at Genesis 25:19. According to the Old Testament, Jacob was the younger twin brother of Esau, who was the ancestor of Edom and the Edomites. The two are representatives of two different grades of social order, Jacob being a pastoralist and Esau a nomadic hunter.Jacob's Dream at Bethel. 10 Jacob left Beersheba and set out for Harran. 11 When he reached a certain place, he stopped for the night because the sun had setTaking one of the stones there, he put it under his head and lay down to sleep. 12 He had a dream in which he saw a stairway resting on the earth, with its top reaching to heaven, and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it.

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This article is about the patriarch. For the name, see Jacob (name). For other uses, see Jacob (disambiguation).

JacobיַעֲקֹבJacob Wrestling with the Angel, by RembrandtResting placeCave of the Patriarchs, Hebron31°31′29″N 35°06′39″E / 31.5247°N 35.1107°ESpouse(s)Leah
12 sons (Twelve Tribes of Israel)
Dinah (only daughter)ParentsIsaac (father)Rebecca (mother)Relatives
Abraham (grandfather)
Sarah (grandmother)
Ishmael (uncle)
Esau (twin brother)
Laban (uncle, father-in-law)

Jacob (/ˈdʒeɪkəb/; Hebrew: .mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-family:”SBL Hebrew”,”SBL BibLit”,”Frank Ruehl CLM”,”Taamey Frank CLM”,”Ezra SIL”,”Ezra SIL SR”,”Keter Aram Tsova”,”Taamey Ashkenaz”,”Taamey David CLM”,”Keter YG”,”Shofar”,”David CLM”,”Hadasim CLM”,”Simple CLM”,”Nachlieli”,Cardo,Alef,”Noto Serif Hebrew”,”Noto Sans Hebrew”,”David Libre”,David,”Times New Roman”,Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}יַעֲקֹב‎, Modern: Yaʿaqōv (help·info), Tiberian: Yaʿăqōḇ; Arabic: يَعْقُوب‎ Yaʿqūb, Greek: Ἰακώβ, Iakṓb), later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites and so is an important figure in Abrahamic religions, such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Jacob first appears in the Book of Genesis, the son of Isaac and Rebecca, the grandson of Abraham, Sarah and Bethuel, the nephew of Ishmael. He was the second-born of Isaac’s children, the elder being his fraternal twin brother Esau. However, by deceiving Isaac when he was old and blind, Jacob was able to usurp the blessing that belonged to Esau as the firstborn son, and become the leader of their family.[1] Following a severe drought in his homeland Canaan, Jacob and his descendants, with the help of his son Joseph, who had since become a confidante of Pharaoh, moved to Egypt, where he died, aged 147 years, and was buried in the Cave of Machpelah.

Jacob is said to have had twelve sons by four women, his wives, Leah and Rachel, and his concubines, Bilhah and Zilpah, who were, in order of their birth, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, and Benjamin, all of whom became the heads of their own family groups, later known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, and it is also known that he had a daughter, Dinah.[2] It is possible he had more children than the thirteen named in the Bible, as the passages Gen. 37:35 and Gen. 46:7 both mention the existence of his sons and daughters, which could support the existence of additional children, who were unnamed in religious texts.[3] Jacob displayed favoritism among his wives and children, preferring Rachel and her sons, Joseph and Benjamin, causing tension within the family, culminating in the sale of Joseph by his brothers into slavery.

Jacob’s Dream statue and display on the campus of Abilene Christian University. The artwork is based on Genesis 28:10–22 and graphically represents the scenes alluded to in the hymn “Nearer, My God, to Thee” and the spiritual “We Are Climbing Jacob’s Ladder” as well as other musical works.


According to the folk etymology found in Genesis 25:26, the name Ya’aqob יעקב‎ is derived from aqeb עָקֵב‎ “heel”, as Jacob was born grasping the heel of his twin brother Esau.[4][5] The historical origin of the name is uncertain, although similar names have been recorded. Yaqub-Har is recorded as a place name in a list by Thutmose III (15th century BC), and later as the nomen of a Hyksos pharaoh. The hieroglyphs are ambiguous, and can be read as “Yaqub-Har”, “Yaqubaal”, or “Yaqub El”. The same name is recorded earlier still, in c. 1800 BC, in cuneiform inscriptions (spelled ya-ah-qu-ub-el, ya-qu-ub-el).[6] The suggestion that the personal name may be shortened from this compound name, which would translate to “may El protect”, originates with Bright (1960).[7] The Septuagint renders the name Ιακωβος, whence Latin Jacobus, English Jacob.

The name Israel given to Jacob following the episode of his wrestling with the angel (Genesis 32:22–32) is etymologized as composition of אֵל‎ el “god” and the root שָׂרָה‎ śarah “to rule, contend, have power, prevail over”:[8] שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים‎ (KJV: “a prince hast thou power with God”); alternatively, the el can be read as the subject, for a translation of “El rules/contends/struggles”.[9]

Genesis narrative

Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Judah by Michelangelo Buonarroti, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City

The biblical account of the life of Jacob is found in the Book of Genesis, chapters 25–50.

Jacob and Esau’s birth

Jacob and his twin brother, Esau, were born to Isaac and Rebecca after 20 years of marriage, when Isaac was 60 years of age (Genesis 25:20, 25:26). Rebecca was uncomfortable during her pregnancy and went to inquire of God why she was suffering. She received the prophecy that twins were fighting in her womb and would continue to fight all their lives, even after they became two separate nations. The prophecy also said that “the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger” (Genesis 25:25 KJV).

When the time came for Rebecca to give birth, the firstborn, Esau, came out covered with red hair, as if he were wearing a hairy garment, and his heel was grasped by the hand of Jacob, the secondborn. According to Genesis 25:25, Isaac and Rebecca named the first son Hebrew: עשו‎, Esau. The second son they named יעקב, Jacob (Ya`aqob or Ya`aqov, meaning “heel-catcher”, “supplanter”, “leg-puller”, “he who follows upon the heels of one”, from Hebrew: עקב‎, `aqab or `aqav, “seize by the heel”, “circumvent”, “restrain”, a wordplay upon Hebrew: עקבה‎, `iqqebah or `iqqbah, “heel”).[10]

The boys displayed very different natures as they matured. “… and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; but Jacob was a simple man, dwelling in tents” (Genesis 25:27). Moreover, the attitudes of their parents toward them also differed: “And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison: but Rebecca loved Jacob” (Genesis 25:28).

Jacob offering a dish of lentils to Esau for his birthright, 18th-century painting by Zacarias Gonzalez Velazquez
Acquiring birthright
Main article: Jacob and Esau

Genesis 25:29–34 tells the account of Esau selling his birthright to Jacob. This passage tells that Esau, returning famished from the fields, begged Jacob to give him some of the stew that Jacob had just made. (Esau referred to the dish as “that same red pottage”, giving rise to his nickname, Hebrew: אדום‎ (`Edom, meaning “Red”).) Jacob offered to give Esau a bowl of stew in exchange for his birthright, to which Esau agreed.

Blessing of Isaac

As Isaac aged, he became blind and was uncertain when he would die, so he decided to bestow Esau’s birthright upon him. He requested that Esau go out to the fields with his weapons (quiver and bow) to kill some venison. Isaac then requested that Esau make “savory meat” for him out of the venison, according to the way he enjoyed it the most, so that he could eat it and bless Esau.

Rebecca overheard this conversation. It is suggested that she realized prophetically that Isaac’s blessings would go to Jacob, since she was told before the twins’ birth that the older son would serve the younger.[11] Rebecca blessed Jacob and she quickly ordered Jacob to bring her two kid goats from their flock so that he could take Esau’s place in serving Isaac and receiving his blessing. Jacob protested that his father would recognize their deception since Esau was hairy and he himself was smooth-skinned. He feared his father would curse him as soon as he felt him, but Rebecca offered to take the curse herself, then insisted that Jacob obey her.[12] Jacob did as his mother instructed and, when he returned with the kids, Rebecca made the savory meat that Isaac loved. Before she sent Jacob to his father, she dressed him in Esau’s garments and laid goatskins on his arms and neck to simulate hairy skin.

An elderly Isaac blessing Jacob, oil on canvas by Govert Flinck, 1638

Disguised as Esau, Jacob entered Isaac’s room. Surprised that Esau was back so soon, Isaac asked how it could be that the hunt went so quickly. Jacob responded, “Because the LORD your God brought it to me.” Rashi, on Genesis 27:21 says Isaac’s suspicions were aroused even more, because Esau never used the personal name of God. Isaac demanded that Jacob come close so he could feel him, but the goatskins felt just like Esau’s hairy skin. Confused, Isaac exclaimed, “The voice is Jacob’s voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau!” Genesis 27:22. Still trying to get at the truth, Isaac asked him directly, “Art thou my very son Esau?” and Jacob answered simply, “I am.” Isaac proceeded to eat the food and to drink the wine that Jacob gave him, and then told him to come close and kiss him. As Jacob kissed his father, Isaac smelled the clothes which belonged to Esau and finally accepted that the person in front of him was Esau. Isaac then blessed Jacob with the blessing that was meant for Esau. Genesis 27:28–29 states Isaac’s blessing: “Therefore God give thee of the dew of heavens, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine: Let people serve thee: be lord over thy brethren, and let thy mother’s sons bow down to thee: cursed be every one that curseth thee, and blessed be he that blesseth thee.”

Jacob had scarcely left the room when Esau returned from the hunt to prepare his game and receive the blessing. The realization that he had been deceived shocked Isaac, yet he acknowledged that Jacob had received the blessings by adding, “Indeed, he will be [or remain] blessed!” (27:33).

Esau was heartbroken by the deception and begged for his own blessing. Having made Jacob a ruler over his brothers, Isaac could only promise, “By your sword you shall live, but your brother you shall serve; yet it shall be that when you are aggrieved, you may cast off his yoke from upon your neck” (27:39–40).

Although Esau sold Jacob his own birthright, which was his blessing, for “red pottage,” Esau still hated Jacob for receiving his blessing that their father Isaac unknowingly had given to him. He vowed to kill Jacob as soon as Isaac died. When Rebecca heard about his murderous intentions,[13] she ordered Jacob to travel to her brother Laban’s house in Haran, until Esau’s anger subsided. She convinced Isaac to send Jacob away by telling him that she despaired of his marrying a local girl from the idol-worshipping families of Canaan (as Esau had done). After Isaac sent Jacob away to find a wife, Esau realized his own Canaanite wives were evil in his father’s eyes and so he took a daughter of Isaac’s half-brother, Ishmael, as another wife.

Jacob’s ladder
Main article: Jacob’s Ladder
Jacob’s Dream by William Blake (c. 1800, British Museum, London)

Near Luz en route to Haran, Jacob experienced a vision of a ladder, or staircase, reaching into heaven with angels going up and down it, commonly referred to as “Jacob’s ladder.” He heard the voice of God, who repeated many of the blessings upon him, coming from the top of the ladder.

According to Midrash Genesis Rabbah, the ladder signified the exiles that the Jewish people would suffer before the coming of the Jewish Messiah: the angels that represented the exiles of Babylonia, Persia, and Greece each climbed up a certain number of steps, paralleling the years of the exile, before they “fell down”; but the angel representing the last exile, that of Edom, kept climbing higher and higher into the clouds. Jacob feared that his descendants would never be free of Esau’s domination, but God assured him that at the End of Days, Edom too would come falling down.[14]

In the morning, Jacob awakened and continued on his way to Haran, after naming the place where he had spent the night “Bethel,” “God’s house.”

Jacob’s marriages
Rachel and Jacob by William Dyce

Arriving in Haran, Jacob saw a well where shepherds were gathering their flocks to water them and met Laban’s younger daughter, Rachel, Jacob’s first cousin; she was working as a shepherdess. Jacob was 77 years old,[15] and he loved Rachel immediately. After spending a month with his relatives he asked for her hand in marriage in return for working seven years for Laban the Aramean. Laban agreed to the arrangement. These seven years seemed to Jacob “but a few days, for the love he had for her.” When they were complete and he was 84 years old[15] he asked for his wife, but Laban deceived him by switching Rachel for her older sister, Leah, as the veiled bride. In the morning, when the truth became known, Laban justified his action, saying that in his country it was unheard of to give a younger daughter before the older. However, he agreed to give Rachel in marriage as well if Jacob would work another seven years. After the week of wedding celebrations with Leah, Jacob married Rachel, and he continued to work for Laban for another seven years.

Jacob, having been celibate until the age of 84, fathered twelve children in the next seven years.[15] He loved Rachel more than Leah, and Leah felt hated. God opened Leah’s womb and she gave birth to four sons rapidly: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah. Rachel, however, remained barren. Following the example of Sarah, who gave her handmaid to Abraham after years of infertility, Rachel gave Jacob her handmaid, Bilhah, in marriage so that Rachel could raise children through her. Bilhah gave birth to Dan and Naphtali. Seeing that she had left off childbearing temporarily, Leah then gave her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob in marriage so that Leah could raise more children through her. Zilpah gave birth to Gad and Asher. Afterwards, Leah became fertile again and gave birth to Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah, Jacob’s first and only daughter. God remembered Rachel, who gave birth to Joseph and Benjamin.

After Joseph was born, Jacob decided to return home to his parents. Laban the Aramean was reluctant to release him, as God had blessed his flock on account of Jacob. Laban asked what he could pay Jacob. Jacob suggested that all the spotted, speckled, and brown goats and sheep of Laban’s flock, at any given moment, would be his wages. Jacob placed rods of poplar, hazel, and chestnut, all of which he peeled “white streaks upon them,”[16] within the flocks’ watering holes or troughs in a performance of sympathetic magic, associating the stripes of the rods with the growth of stripes on the livestock.[17] Despite this practicing of magic, later on Jacob says to his wives that it was God who made the livestock give birth to the convenient offspring, in order to turn the tide against the deceptive Laban.[18] As time passed, Laban’s sons noticed that Jacob was taking the better part of their flocks, and so Laban’s friendly attitude towards Jacob began to change. The angel of the Lord, in a dream back during the breeding season, told Jacob “Now lift your eyes and see [that] all the he goats mounting the animals are ringed, speckled, and striped, for I have seen all that Laban is doing to you”,[19] that he is the God whom Jacob met at Bethel,[20] and that Jacob should leave and go back to the land where he was born,[20] which he and his wives and children did without informing Laban. Before they left, Rachel stole the teraphim, considered to be household idols, from Laban’s house.

Laban pursued Jacob for seven days. The night before he caught up to him, God appeared to Laban in a dream and warned him not to say anything good or bad to Jacob. When the two met, Laban said to Jacob, “What have you done, that you have tricked me and driven away my daughters like captives of the sword?”[21] He also asked for his stolen teraphim back. Knowing nothing about Rachel’s theft, Jacob told Laban that whoever stole them should die and stood aside to let him search. When Laban reached Rachel’s tent, she hid the teraphim by sitting on them and stating she could not get up because she was menstruating. Jacob and Laban then parted from each other with a pact to preserve the peace between them near Gilead. Laban returned to his home and Jacob continued on his way.

Journey back to Canaan
Jacob Wrestling with the Angel by Eugène Delacroix
Main article: Jacob wrestling with the angel

As Jacob neared the land of Canaan as he passed Mahanaim, he sent messengers ahead to his brother Esau. They returned with the news that Esau was coming to meet Jacob with an army of 400 men. With great apprehension, Jacob prepared for the worst. He engaged in earnest prayer to God, then sent on before him a tribute of flocks and herds to Esau, “A present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob.”

Jacob then transported his family and flocks across the ford Jabbok by night, then recrossed back to send over his possessions, being left alone in communion with God. There, a mysterious being appeared (“man,” Genesis 32:24, 28; or “God,” Genesis 32:28, 30, Hosea 12:3, 5; or “angel,” Hosea 12:4), and the two wrestled until daybreak. When the being saw that he did not overpower Jacob, he touched Jacob on the sinew of his thigh (the gid hanasheh, גיד הנשה), and, as a result, Jacob developed a limp (Genesis 32:31). Because of this, “to this day the people of Israel do not eat the sinew of the thigh that is on the hip socket” (Genesis 32:32). This incident is the source of the mitzvah of porging.[22]

Jacob then demanded a blessing, and the being declared in Genesis 32:28 that, from then on, Jacob would be called יִשְׂרָאֵל, Israel (Yisra`el, meaning “one that struggled with the divine angel” (Josephus), “one who has prevailed with God” (Rashi), “a man seeing God” (Whiston), “he will rule as God” (Strong), or “a prince with God” (Morris), from Hebrew: שרה‎, “prevail,” “have power as a prince”).[23] While he is still called Jacob in later texts, his name Israel makes some consider him the eponymous ancestor of the Israelites.

Jacob asked the being’s name, but he refused to answer. Afterwards, Jacob named the place Penuel (Penuw`el, Peniy`el, meaning “face of God”),[24] saying: “I have seen God face to face and lived.”

Because the terminology is ambiguous (“el” in Yisra`el) and inconsistent, and because this being refused to reveal his name, there are varying views as to whether he was a man, an angel, or God. Josephus uses only the terms “angel”, “divine angel,” and “angel of God,” describing the struggle as no small victory. According to Rashi, the being was the guardian angel of Esau himself, sent to destroy Jacob before he could return to the land of Canaan. Trachtenberg theorized that the being refused to identify itself for fear that, if its secret name was known, it would be conjurable by incantations.[25] Literal Christian interpreters like Henry M. Morris say that the stranger was “God Himself and, therefore, Christ in His preincarnate state”, citing Jacob’s own evaluation and the name he assumed thereafter, “one who fights victoriously with God”, and adding that God had appeared in the human form of the Angel of the Lord to eat a meal with Abraham in Genesis 18.[26] Geller wrote that, “in the context of the wrestling bout, the name implies that Jacob won this supremacy, linked to that of God’s, by a kind of theomachy.”[27]

In the morning, Jacob assembled his four wives and 11 sons, placing the maidservants and their children in front, Leah and her children next, and Rachel and Joseph in the rear. Some commentators cite this placement as proof that Jacob continued to favor Joseph over Leah’s children, as presumably the rear position would have been safer from a frontal assault by Esau, which Jacob feared. Jacob himself took the foremost position. Esau’s spirit of revenge, however, was apparently appeased by Jacob’s bounteous gifts of camels, goats and flocks. Their reunion was an emotional one.

Esau and Jacob reconcile (1844) by Francesco Hayez

Esau offered to accompany them on their way back to Israel, but Jacob protested that his children were still young and tender (born six to 13 years prior in the narrative); Jacob suggested eventually catching up with Esau at Mount Seir. According to the Sages, this was a prophetic reference to the End of Days, when Jacob’s descendants will come to Mount Seir, the home of Edom, to deliver judgment against Esau’s descendants for persecuting them throughout the millennia (see Obadiah 1:21). Jacob actually diverted himself to Succoth and was not recorded as rejoining Esau until, at Machpelah, the two bury their father Isaac, who lived to be 180, and was 60 years older than they were.

Jacob then arrived in Shechem, where he bought a parcel of land, now identified as Joseph’s Tomb. In Shechem, Jacob’s daughter Dinah was kidnapped and raped by the ruler’s son, who desired to marry the girl. Dinah’s brothers, Simeon and Levi, agreed in Jacob’s name to permit the marriage as long as all the men of Shechem first circumcised themselves, ostensibly to unite the children of Jacob in Abraham’s covenant of familial harmony. On the third day after the circumcisions, when all the men of Shechem were still in pain, Simeon and Levi put them all to death by the sword and rescued their sister Dinah, and their brothers plundered the property, women, and children. Jacob condemned this act, saying: “You have brought trouble on me by making me a stench to the Canaanites and Perizzites, the people living in this land.”[28] He later rebuked his two sons for their anger in his deathbed blessing (Genesis 49:5–7).

Jacob returned to Bethel, where he had another vision of blessing. Although the death of Rebecca, Jacob’s mother, is not explicitly recorded in the Bible, Deborah, Rebecca’s nurse, died and was buried at Bethel, at a place that Jacob calls Allon Bachuth (אלון בכות), “Oak of Weepings” (Genesis 35:8). According to the Midrash,[29] the plural form of the word “weeping” indicates the double sorrow that Rebecca also died at this time.

The death of Rachel after the birth of Benjamin (c. 1847) by Gustav Ferdinand Metz

Jacob then made a further move while Rachel was pregnant; near Bethlehem, Rachel went into labor and died as she gave birth to her second son, Benjamin (Jacob’s twelfth son). Jacob buried her and erected a monument over her grave. Rachel’s Tomb, just outside Bethlehem, remains a popular site for pilgrimages and prayers to this day. Jacob then settled in Migdal Eder, where his firstborn, Reuben, slept with Rachel’s servant Bilhah; Jacob’s response was not given at the time, but he did condemn Reuben for it later, in his deathbed blessing. Jacob was finally reunited with his father Isaac in Mamre (outside Hebron).

When Isaac died at the age of 180, Jacob and Esau buried him in the Cave of the Patriarchs, which Abraham had purchased as a family burial plot. At this point in the biblical narrative, two genealogies of Esau’s family appear under the headings “the generations of Esau”. A conservative interpretation is that, at Isaac’s burial, Jacob obtained the records of Esau, who had been married 80 years prior, and incorporated them into his own family records, and that Moses augmented and published them.[30]

Jacob in Hebron
Main article: Plot against Joseph

The house of Jacob dwelt in Hebron,[31] in the land of Canaan. His flocks were often fed in the pastures of Shechem[32][33] as well as Dothan.[34] Of all the children in his household, he loved Rachel’s firstborn son, Joseph, the most. Thus Joseph’s half brothers were jealous of him and they ridiculed him often. Joseph even told his father about all of his half brothers’ misdeeds. When Joseph was 17 years old, Jacob made a long coat or tunic of many colors for him. Seeing this, the half brothers began to hate Joseph. Then Joseph began to have dreams that implied that his family would bow down to him. When he told his brothers about such dreams, it drove them to conspire against him. When Jacob heard of these dreams, he rebuked his son for proposing the idea that the house of Jacob would even bow down to Joseph. Yet, he contemplated his son’s words about these dreams. (Genesis 37:1–11)

Joseph’s Coat Brought to Jacobby Giovanni Andrea de Ferrari, c. 1640

Sometime afterward, the sons of Jacob by Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah, were feeding his flocks in Shechem. Jacob wanted to know how things were doing, so he asked Joseph to go down there and return with a report.[35] This was the last time he would ever see his son in Hebron. Later that day, the report that Jacob ended up receiving came from Joseph’s brothers who brought before him a coat laden with blood. Jacob identified the coat as the one he made for Joseph. At that moment he cried “It is my son’s tunic. A wild beast has devoured him. Without doubt Joseph is torn to pieces.” He rent his clothes and put sackcloth around his waist mourning for days. No one from the house of Jacob could comfort him during this time of bereavement. (Genesis 37:31–35)

The truth was that Joseph’s older brothers had turned on him, apprehended him and ultimately sold him into slavery on a caravan headed for Egypt. (Genesis 37:36)

Seven-year famine
See also: Joseph’s brothers sent to Egypt

Twenty years later,[36] throughout the Middle East a severe famine occurred like none other that lasted seven years.[37] It crippled nations.[38] The word was that the only kingdom prospering was Egypt. In the second year of this great famine,[39] when Israel (Jacob) was about 130 years old,[40] he told his 10 sons of Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah, to go to Egypt and buy grain. Israel’s youngest son Benjamin, born from Rachel, stayed behind by his father’s order to keep him safe. (Genesis 42:1–5)

Nine of the sons returned to their father Israel from Egypt, stockpiled with grain on their donkeys. They relayed to their father all that had happened in Egypt. They spoke of being accused of as spies and that their brother Simeon, had been taken prisoner. When Reuben, the eldest, mentioned that they needed to bring Benjamin to Egypt to prove their word as honest men, their father became furious with them. He couldn’t understand how they were put in a position to tell the Egyptians all about their family. When the sons of Israel opened their sacks, they saw their money that they used to pay for the grain. It was still in their possession, and so they all became afraid. Israel then became angry with the loss of Joseph, Simeon, and now possibly Benjamin.
(Genesis 42:26–38)

It turned out that Joseph, who identified his brothers in Egypt, was able to secretly return that money that they used to pay for the grain, back to them.[41] When the house of Israel consumed all the grain that they brought from Egypt, Israel told his sons to go back and buy more. This time, Judah spoke to his father in order to persuade him about having Benjamin accompany them, so as to prevent Egyptian retribution. In hopes of retrieving Simeon and ensuring Benjamin’s return, Israel told them to bring the best fruits of their land, including: balm, honey, spices, myrrh, pistachio nuts and almonds. Israel also mentioned that the money that was returned to their money sacks was probably a mistake or an oversight on their part. So, he told them to bring that money back and use double that amount to pay for the new grain. Lastly, he let Benjamin go with them and said “may God Almighty give you mercy… If I am bereaved, I am bereaved!” (Genesis 43:1–14)

Jacob in Egypt
See also: Joseph’s family reunited
West Asiatic visitors to Egypt (c.1900 BCE)A group of West Asiatic foreigners, possibly Canaanites, visiting the Egyptian official Khnumhotep II circa 1900 BC. Tomb of 12th-dynasty official Khnumhotep II, at Beni Hasan.[42][43][44][45]
House of Israel welcomed by Pharaoh, watercolor by James Tissot (c. 1900)
Joseph with his father Jacob and brothers in Egypt

When the sons of Israel (Jacob) returned to Hebron from their second trip, they came back with 20 additional donkeys carrying all kinds of goods and supplies as well as Egyptian transport wagons. When their father came out to meet them, his sons told him that Joseph was still alive, that he was the governor over all of Egypt and that he wanted the house of Israel to move to Egypt. Israel’s heart “stood still” and just couldn’t believe what he was hearing. Looking upon the wagons he declared “Joseph my son is still alive. I will go and see him before I die.” (Genesis 45:16–28)

Israel and his entire house of 70,[46] gathered up with all their livestock and began their journey to Egypt. En route, Israel stopped at Beersheba for the night to make a sacrificial offering to his God, Yahweh. Apparently he had some reservations about leaving the land of his forefathers, but God reassured him not to fear that he would rise again. God also assured that he would be with him, he would prosper, and he would also see his son Joseph who would lay him to rest. Continuing their journey to Egypt, when they approached in proximity, Israel sent his son Judah ahead to find out where the caravans were to stop. They were directed to disembark at Goshen. It was here, after 22 years, that Jacob saw his son Joseph once again. They embraced each other and wept together for quite a while. Israel then said, “Now let me die, since I have seen your face, because you are still alive.” (Genesis 46:1–30)

The time had come for Joseph’s family to personally meet the Pharaoh of Egypt. After Joseph prepared his family for the meeting, the brothers came before the Pharaoh first, formally requesting to pasture in Egyptian lands. The Pharaoh honored their stay and even made the notion that if there were any competent men in their house, then they may elect a chief herdsman to oversee Egyptian livestock. Finally, Joseph’s father was brought out to meet the Pharaoh. Because the Pharaoh had such a high regard for Joseph, practically making him his equal,[47] it was an honor to meet his father. Thus, Israel was able to bless the Pharaoh. The two chatted for a bit, the Pharaoh even inquiring of Israel’s age which happened to be 130 years old at that time. After the meeting, the families were directed to pasture in the land of Ramses where they lived in the province of Goshen. The house of Israel acquired many possessions and multiplied exceedingly during the course of 17 years, even through the worst of the seven-year famine. (Genesis 46:31–47:28)

Historicity of the Egyptian episode

According to researches on the historicity of the Old Testament, the descent of Abraham into Egypt as recorded in Genesis 12:10-20 should correspond to the early years of the 2nd millennium BCE, which is before the time the Hyksos ruled in Egypt, but would coincide with the Semitic parties known to have visited the Egyptians circa 1900 BCE, as documented in the painting of a West-Asiatic procession of the tomb of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan.[48] It might be possible to associate Abraham to such known Semitic visitors to Egypt, as they would have been ethnically connected.[48][49] The period of Joseph and Jacob/Israel in Egypt (Genesis 39:50), where they were in favour at the Egyptian court and Joseph held high administrative positions next to the ruler of the land, would correspond to the time the Hyksos ruled in Egypt, during the Fifteenth Dynasty.[48] The time of Moses and the expulsion to Palestine related in The Exodus could also correspond to the explusion of the Hyksos from Egypt.[48][49]

Final days
Main article: Blessing of Jacob
Jacob blessing Ephraim and Manasseh
Jacob’s funeral procession

Israel (Jacob) was 147 years old when he called to his favorite son Joseph and pleaded that he not be buried in Egypt. Rather, he requested to be carried to the land of Canaan to be buried with his forefathers. Joseph swore to do as his father asked of him. Not too long afterward, Israel had fallen ill, losing much of his vision. When Joseph came to visit his father, he brought with him his two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh. Israel declared that they would be heirs to the inheritance of the house of Israel, as if they were his own children, just as Reuben and Simeon were. Then Israel laid his right hand on the younger Ephraim’s head and his left hand on the eldest Manasseh’s head and blessed Joseph. However, Joseph was displeased that his father’s right hand was not on the head of his firstborn, so he switched his father’s hands. But Israel refused saying, “but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he.” A declaration he made, just as Israel himself was to his firstborn brother Esau. Then Israel called all of his sons in and prophesied their blessings or curses to all twelve of them in order of their ages. (Genesis 47:29–49:32)

Afterward, Israel died and the family, including the Egyptians, mourned him 70 days. Israel was embalmed and a great ceremonial journey to Canaan was prepared by Joseph. He led the servants of Pharaoh, and the elders of the houses Israel and Egypt beyond the Jordan River to Atad where they observed seven days of mourning. Their lamentation was so great that it caught the attention of surrounding Canaanites who remarked “This is a deep mourning of the Egyptians.” This spot was then named Abel Mizraim. Then they buried him in the cave of Machpelah, the property of Abraham when he bought it from the Hittites. (Genesis 49:33–50:14)

Children of Jacob
See also: Israelites

Jacob, through his two wives and his two concubines had 12 biological sons; Reuben (Genesis 29:32), Simeon (Genesis 29:33), Levi (Genesis 29:34), Judah
(Genesis 29:35), Dan (Genesis 30:5), Naphtali (Genesis 30:7),
Gad (Genesis 30:10), Asher (Genesis 30:12), Issachar (Genesis 30:17),
Zebulun (Genesis 30:19), Joseph
(Genesis 30:23) and Benjamin (Genesis 35:18) and at least one daughter, Dinah (if there were other daughters, they are not mentioned in the Genesis story) (Genesis 30:21). In addition, Jacob also adopted the two sons of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim (Genesis 48:5).

The offspring of Jacob’s sons became the tribes of Israel following the Exodus, when the Israelites conquered and settled in the Land of Israel.

Biblical family tree
TerahSarah[50]AbrahamHagarHaranNahorIshmaelMilcahLotIscahIshmaelites7 sons[51]Bethuel1st daughter2nd daughterIsaacRebeccaLabanMoabitesAmmonitesEsauJacobRachelBilhahEdomitesZilpahLeah1. Reuben2. Simeon3. Levi4. Judah9. Issachar10. ZebulunDinah (daughter)7. Gad8. Asher5. Dan6. Naphtali11. Joseph12. Benjamin

Religious perspectives

Jacob/IsraelRussian Orthodox Icon of St. Jacob, 18th century (Iconostasis) of Kizhi monastery, RussiaProphet, PatriarchVenerated inJudaismChristianityIslamBaháʼí FaithMajor shrineCave of the Patriarchs, HebronJewish tradition

There are two opinions in the Midrash as to how old Rebecca was at the time of her marriage and, consequently, at the twins’ birth. According to the traditional counting cited by Rashi, Isaac was 37 years old at the time of the Binding of Isaac, and news of Rebecca’s birth reached Abraham immediately after that event.[52] In that case, since Isaac was 60 when Jacob and Essau were born and they had been married for 20 years, then Isaac was 40 years old when he married Rebecca (Gen. 25:20), making Rebecca three years old at the time of her marriage, and 23 years old at the birth of Jacob and Essau. According to the second opinion, Rebecca was 14 years old at the time of their marriage, and 34 years old at the birth of Jacob and Essau. In either case, Isaac and Rebecca were married for 20 years before Jacob and Esau were born. The Midrash says that during Rebecca’s pregnancy whenever she would pass a house of Torah study, Jacob would struggle to come out; whenever she would pass a house of idolatry, Esau would agitate to come out.[53]

Rashi explained that Isaac, when blessing Jacob instead of Esau, smelled the heavenly scent of Gan Eden (Paradise) when Jacob entered his room and, in contrast, perceived Gehenna opening beneath Esau when the latter entered the room, showing him that he had been deceived all along by Esau’s show of piety.[54]

When Laban planned to deceive Jacob into marrying Leah instead of Rachel, the Midrash recounts that both Jacob and Rachel suspected that Laban would pull such a trick; Laban was known as the “Aramean” (deceiver), and changed Jacob’s wages ten times during his employ (Genesis 31:7). The couple therefore devised a series of signs by which Jacob could identify the veiled bride on his wedding night. But when Rachel saw her sister being taken out to the wedding canopy, her heart went out to her for the public shame Leah would suffer if she were exposed. Rachel therefore gave Leah the signs so that Jacob would not realize the switch.

Jacob had still another reason for grieving the loss of Joseph. God had promised to him: “If none of your sons dies during your lifetime, you may look upon it as a token that you will not be put in (Hell of) Gehenna after your death.”[55] Thinking Joseph to be dead, Jacob had his own destiny to lament because he considered that he was doomed to that Hell.[55]

Jewish apocalyptic literature of the Hellenistic period includes many ancient texts with narratives about Jacob, many times with details different from Genesis. The more important are the book of Jubilees and the Book of Biblical Antiquities. Jacob is also the protagonist of the Testament of Jacob, of the Ladder of Jacob and of the Prayer of Joseph, which interpret the experience of this Patriarch in the context of merkabah mysticism.


The Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite see Jacob’s dream as a prophecy of the incarnation of the Logos, whereby Jacob’s ladder is understood as a symbol of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary), who, according to Eastern Orthodox theology, united heaven and earth in her womb. The biblical account of this vision (Genesis 28:10–17) is one of the standard Old Testament readings at Vespers on Great Feasts of the Theotokos.

The Eastern and Western Churches consider Jacob as a saint along with other biblical patriarchs.[56] Along with other patriarchs his feast day is celebrated in the Byzantine rite on the Second Sunday before the Advent (December 11–17), under the title the Sunday of the Forefathers.[57]

Islamic tradition
Main article: Jacob in Islam
Cenotaph of Jacob, Cave of the Patriarchs

Two further references to Isra’il (Arabic: إِسْرَآئِیل [ˈisraāˈiyl]; Classical/ Quranic Arabic: إِسْرَآءِیْل [ˈisraāãˈiyl]) are believed to be mention of Jacob. The Arabic form Ya’qūb (Arabic: يَعْقُوب‎, romanized: Yaʿqūb may be direct from the Hebrew or indirect through Syriac.[58]

He is recognized in Islam as a prophet who received inspiration from God. He is acknowledged as a patriarch of Islam. Muslims believe that he preached the same monotheistic faith as his forefathers ʾIbrāhīm, ʾIsḥāq and Ismā’īl. Jacob is mentioned 16 times in the Quran.[59] In the majority of these references, Jacob is mentioned alongside fellow prophets and patriarchs as an ancient and pious prophet. According to the Quran, Jacob remained in the company of the elect throughout his life. (38:47) The Quran specifically mentions that Jacob was guided (6:84) and inspired (4:163) and was chosen to enforce the awareness of the Hereafter. (38:46) Jacob is described as a good-doer (21:72) and the Quran further makes it clear that God inspired Jacob to contribute towards purification and hold the contact prayer. (21:73) Jacob is further described as being resourceful and a possessor of great vision (38:45) and is further spoken of as being granted a “tongue [voice] of truthfulness to be heard.” (19:50)

Of the life of Jacob, the Quran narrates two especially important events. The first is the role he plays in the story of his son Joseph. The Quran narrates the story of Joseph in detail, and Jacob, being Joseph’s father, is mentioned thrice and is referenced another 25 times.[59] In the narrative, Jacob does not trust some of his older sons (12: 11, 18, 23) because they do not respect him. (12: 8, 16–17) Jacob’s prophetic nature is evident from his foreknowledge of Joseph’s future greatness (12:6), his foreboding and response to the supposed death of Joseph (12: 13, 18) and in his response to the sons’ plight in Egypt. (12: 83, 86–87, 96) Islamic literature fleshes out the narrative of Jacob, and mentions that his wives included Rachel.[60] Jacob is later mentioned in the Quran in the context of the promise bestowed to Zechariah, regarding the birth of John the Baptist. (19:6) Jacob’s second mention is in the Quran’s second chapter. As Jacob lay on his deathbed, he asked his 12 sons to testify their faith to him before he departed from this world to the next. (2:132) Each son testified in front of Jacob that they would promise to remain Muslim (in submission to God) until the day of their death, that is they would surrender their wholeselves to God alone and would worship only Him.

In contrast to the Judeo-Christian view of Jacob, one main difference is that the story of Jacob’s blessing, in which he deceives Isaac, is not accepted in Islam. The Quran makes it clear that Jacob was blessed by God as a prophet and, therefore, Muslims believe that his father, being a prophet as well, also knew of his son’s greatness.[61] Jacob is also cited in the Hadith as an example of one who was patient and trusting in God in the face of suffering.[59]

Nation of Islam movement
Main article: Yakub (Nation of Islam)

According to the teachings of the Nation of Islam, the original inhabitants of the world were black (referred to as the “Asiatic Blackman”), while the white race are “devils” who were created 6,000 years ago on what is today the Greek island of Patmos by the Biblical and Qur’anic Jacob, whom the groups refer to as the “bigheaded scientist” Yakub. Though rejected by the vast majority of American Muslims, several NOI breakaway sects, including the Five-Percent Nation subscribe to this narrative.[62][63] In contrast to both the Bible and Qu’ran, NOI theology teaches Yacub was born in Mecca.[64]


According to Steven Feldman of the Center for Online Judaic Studies, most scholars would date the stories of the patriarchs to the period of the monarchy.[65] Recent excavations in the Timna Valley dating copper mining to the 10th century BCE also discovered what may be the earliest camel bones found in Israel or even outside the Arabian peninsula, dating to around 930 BCE. This is seen as evidence that the stories of Abraham, Joseph, Jacob, and Esau were written after this time.[66]

Nahum M. Sarna indicates that an inability to precisely date the patriarchs, according to the present state of knowledge does not necessarily invalidate the historicity of the narratives. William F. Albright maintained that the narratives contained accurate details of an earlier period.[67]

Scholars such as Thomas L. Thompson view the patriarchical narratives, including the life of Jacob, as late (6th and 5th centuries BCE) literary compositions that have ideological and theological purposes but are unreliable for historical reconstruction of the presettlement period of Israel’s past.[68][69] In Thompson’s The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives, he suggests that the patriarchal narratives arose in a response to some present situation, expressed as an imaginative picture of the past to embody present hope.[70]

Gerhard von Rad, in his Old Testament Theology, seems to take a middle view, explaining that the patriarch “saga” describes actual events subsequently interpreted by the community through its own experience.[71] It is neither entirely mythical, nor strictly “historical”, according to the present understanding of the term. Goldingay cites R.J Coggins’ analogy of looking to Genesis for the history of ancient Canaan as similar to reading Hamlet in order to learn Danish history.[70]


^ .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”\”””\”””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}”Esau and Jacob and the Birthright”. Life, Hope & Truth. Retrieved 2019-09-16.

^ Enumerations of the twelve tribes vary. Because Jacob effectively adopted two of his grandsons by Joseph and Asenath, namely Ephraim and Manasseh, the two grandsons were often substituted for the Tribe of Joseph, yielding thirteen tribes, or twelve if Levi is set apart.

^ “732 Klein”. www.biu.ac.il. Retrieved 2019-09-16.

^ יָדֹו אֹחֶזֶת בַּעֲקֵב עֵשָׂו‎ (KJV: “and his hand took hold on Esau’s heel”). Strong’s Concordance H6119.

^ David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers (31 December 2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. p. 666. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2.

^ Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis, Chapters 18-50 (1995), p. 179.

^ Jonathan Z. Smith, Map is Not Territory: Studies in the History of Religions, University of Chicago Press (1978), p. 33.

^ שָׂרָה‎ śarah “to contend, have power, contend with, persist, exert oneself, persevere” (Strong’s Concordance H8323); שָׂרַר‎ śarar “to be or act as prince, rule, contend, have power, prevail over, reign, govern” (Strong’s Concordance h8280)

^ “The Jewish Study Bible” of Oxford University Press (p. 68=) “The scientific etymology of Israel is uncertain, a good guess being ‘[The God] El rules.'”[1]

^ Strong’s Concordance 3290, 6117.

^ Scherman, Rabbi Nosson (1993). The Chumash. Brooklyn, New York: Mesorah Publications, p. 135.

^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). Legends of the Jews Vol I : Isaac blesses Jacob (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

^ Genesis 27:42

^ The Four Exiles by Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David

^ a b c Craig Olson, “How Old was Father Abraham? Re-examining the Patriarchal Lifespans in Light of Archaeology”, p.13

^ Genesis 30:37

^ Genesis 30:39

^ Genesis 31:7-9

^ Genesis 31:12

^ a b Genesis 31:13

^ Genesis 31:26

^ Eisenstein, Judah David (1901–1906). “Porging”. Jewish Encyclopedia. New York City. LCCN 16014703. Retrieved 2008-11-19.

^ Strong’s Concordance 3478, 8280.

^ Strong’s Concordance 6439.

^ Trachtenberg 1939, p. 80.

^ Morris, Henry M. (1976). The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. pp. 337, 499–502.

^ Geller, Stephen A. (1982). “The Struggle at the Jabbok: the Uses of Enigma in a Biblical Narrative”. Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society. 14: 37–60. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved June 27, 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) Also in: Geller, Stephen A. (1996). “2 – The Struggle at the Jabbok. The uses of enigma in biblical religion (pp. 9ff.)”. Sacred Enigmas. Literary Religion in the Hebrew Bible. London: Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-415-12771-4.

^ Genesis 34:30

^ Bereshit Rabbah 81:5.

^ Morris, Henry M. (1976). The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. pp. 524–25.

^ Genesis 37:14

^ Genesis 37:12

^ Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 2.4.18

^ Genesis 37:16,17

^ Genesis 37:12–14

^ Compare Genesis 37:2,41:46

^ Genesis 41:53

^ Genesis 41:54–57,47:13

^ Genesis 45:9–11

^ Compare Genesis 47:9

^ Genesis 42:25

^ Mieroop, Marc Van De (2010). A History of Ancient Egypt. John Wiley & Sons. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-4051-6070-4.

^ Bard, Kathryn A. (2015). An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. John Wiley & Sons. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-118-89611-2.

^ Kamrin, Janice (2009). “The Aamu of Shu in the Tomb of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hassan” (PDF). Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections. 1:3. S2CID 199601200.

^ Curry, Andrew (2018). “The Rulers of Foreign Lands – Archaeology Magazine”. www.archaeology.org.

^ Genesis 46:27

^ Genesis 44:18

^ a b c d Douglas, J. D.; Tenney, Merrill C. (2011). Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Zondervan Academic. p. 1116. ISBN 978-0-310-49235-1.

^ a b Isbouts, Jean-Pierre (2007). The Biblical World: An Illustrated Atlas. National Geographic Books. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-4262-0138-7.

^ Sarah was the half–sister of Abraham (Genesis 20:12). An alternative tradition holds that she was Abraham’s niece (see Sarah#In rabbinic literature).

^ Genesis 22:21-22: Uz, Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, and Jidlaph

^ Rashi writes, “The Holy One, blessed be He, announced to him [Abraham] that Rebecca, his [Isaac’s] mate, had been born.” Commentary on Gen. 22:20.

^ Bereshit Rabbah 63:6.

^ Pirkei d’Rav Kahana, quoted in Scherman, p. 139.

^ a b Ginzberg, Louis (1909). Legends of the Jews Vol I : Joseph’s Coat Brought to His Father (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society

^ The patriarchs, prophets and certain other Old Testament figures have been and always will be honored as saints in all the Church’s liturgical traditions. – Catechism of the Catholic Church 61

^ Liturgy > Liturgical year >The Christmas Fast – Byzantine Catholic Archeparchy of Pittsburgh

^ Jane Dammen McAuliffe (General Editor) Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an Volume Three : J-O

^ a b c “Jacob”, Encyclopedia of Islam Vol. XI, p. 254.

^ Kathir, Ibn. “Jacob,” Stories of the Prophets

^ Azzam, Leila. “Isaac and Jacob,” Lives of the Prophets

^ Alan Muhammad (October 24, 2010). “Myth or high science? Is there evidence of Mr. Yakub?”. The Final Call (Nation of Islam). Retrieved September 15, 2019.

^ Andrews, Pamela. “”Ain’t No Spook God”: Religiosity in the Nation of Gods and Earths”. Academia.edu. Retrieved 2 August 2019.

^ Michael Angelo Gomez, Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 311

^ Feldman, Steven. “Biblical History: From Abraham to Moses, c. 1850–1200 BCE”, COJS

^ Hasson, Nir (Jan 17, 2014). “Hump stump solved: Camels arrived in region much later than biblicalreference”. Haaretz. Retrieved 30 January 2014.

^ Bimson, John J. “Archaeological Data and the Dating of the Patriarchs,” Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, pp. 59–92, (A.R. Millard & D.J. Wiseman, eds., Leicester: IVP, 1980. Hbk. ISBN 0851117430

^ Megan Bishop Moore, Brad E. Kelle, Biblical History and Israel’s Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2011, pp. 57–74.

^ Rainer Albertz, Israel in exile: the history and literature of the sixth century B.C.E., Society of Biblical Literature, 2003, p. 246

^ a b Goldingay, John. “The Patriarchs in Scripture and History”, Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives, pp. 11–42, (A.R. Millard & D.J. Wiseman, eds., Leicester: IVP, 1980. Hbk. ISBN 0851117430

^ von Rad, Gerhard. Old Testament Theology, vol. 1, pp. 106–08, New York: Harper, 1962

Further reading

Trachtenberg, Joshua (1939), Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion, New York: Behrman’s Jewish Book house
Buechner, Frederick (1993), The Son of Laughter, New York: HarperSanFrancisco

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jacob (Biblical figure). Texts on Wikisource:
“Jacob,” a poem by Arthur Hugh Clough
Cook, Stanley Arthur (1911). “Jacob”. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.).
“Jacob”. The New Student’s Reference Work. 1914.
“Jacob”. Collier’s New Encyclopedia. 1921.vteProphets in the Hebrew BiblePre-Patriarchal
Noah (in rabbinic literature)Patriarchs / Matriarchs
LeahIsraelite prophetsin the Torah
Moses (in rabbinic literature)
Eldad and Medad
PhinehasMentioned in theFormer Prophets
Zechariah ben Jehoiada
Isaiah (in rabbinic literature)
Daniel (in rabbinic literature)Minor
Jonah (in rabbinic literature)
Job (in rabbinic literature)Other
Esther (in rabbinic literature)
AzariahItalics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.
vteProphets in the Quranآدمإدريسنوحهودصالحإبراهيملوطإسماعيل
Enoch (?)
Eber (?)
Salah (?)
Ishmaelإسحاقيعقوبيوسفأيوبشُعيبموسىهارونذو الكفلداود
Jethro (?)
Ezekiel (?)
MuhammadNote: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God to mankind. The Islamic prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran.
vteAdam to David according to the BibleCreation to Flood
ShemCain line
Tubal-cainPatriarchs after Flood
JacobTribe of Judah to Kingdom
DavidNames in italics only appear in the Greek Septuagint version
vtePeople and things in the QuranCharactersNon-humans
Allāh (“The God”)
Names of Allah found in the Quran, such as Karīm (Generous)AnimalsRelated
The baqarah (cow) of Israelites
The dhiʾb (wolf) that Jacob feared could attack Joseph
The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians
Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey)
The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon
The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave
The namlah (female ant) of Solomon
The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah
The nāqat (she-camel) of SalehNon-related
ʿAnkabūt (Female spider)
Dābbat al-Arḍ (Beast of the Earth)
Ḥimār (Wild ass)
Naḥl (Honey bee)
Qaswarah (“Lion”, “beast of prey” or “hunter”)Malāʾikah (Angels)
Angels of Hell
Bearers of the Throne
Harut and Marut
Kirāman Kātibīn (Honourable Scribes)
Munkar and Nakir
Jibrīl (Gabriel, chief)
Ar-Rūḥ (“The Spirit”)
Ar-Rūḥ al-Amīn (“The Trustworthy Spirit”)
Ar-Rūḥ al-Qudus (“The Holy Spirit”)
Angel of the Trumpet (Isrāfīl or Raphael)
Malakul-Mawt (Angel of Death, Azrael)
Mīkāil (Michael)
Jinn (Genies)
QarīnShayāṭīn (Demons or Devils)
Iblīs ash-Shayṭān (the (chief) Devil)
Mārid (“Rebellious one”)Others
Ghilmān or Wildān
Ādam (Adam)
Al-Yasaʿ (Elisha)
Ayyūb (Job)
Dāwūd (David)
Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?)
Hārūn (Aaron)
Hūd (Eber?)
Idrīs (Enoch?)
Ilyās (Elijah)
ʿImrān (Joachim the father of Maryam)
Isḥāq (Isaac)
Ismāʿīl (Ishmael)
Dhabih Ullah
Lūṭ (Lot)
Shuʿayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?)
Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd (Solomon son of David)
ʿUzair (Ezra?)
Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā (John the Baptist the son of Zechariah)
Yaʿqūb (Jacob)
Isrāʾīl (Israel)
Yūnus (Jonah)
Dhūn-Nūn (“He of the Fish (or Whale)” or “Owner of the Fish (or Whale)”)
Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūt (“Companion of the Whale”)
Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb (Joseph son of Jacob)
Zakariyyā (Zechariah)Ulul-ʿAzm(“Those of the Perseverance and Strong Will”)
Other names and titles of Muhammad
ʿĪsā (Jesus)
Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah)
Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)
Mūsā Kalīmullāh (Moses He who spoke to God)
Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh (Abraham Friend of God)
Nūḥ (Noah)Debatable ones
Maryam (Mary)
Ṭālūt (Saul or Gideon?)
Irmiyā (Jeremiah)
Ṣamūʾīl (Samuel)
Yūshaʿ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)People of ProphetsGood ones
Adam’s immediate relatives
Martyred son
Believer of Ya-Sin
Family of Noah
Father Lamech
Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos
Luqman’s son
People of Aaron and Moses
Believer (Hizbil or Hizqil ibn Sabura)
Imraʾat Firʿawn (Āsiyá bint Muzāḥim the Wife of Pharaoh, who adopted Moses)
Magicians of the Pharaoh
Wise, pious man
Moses’ wife
Moses’ sister-in-law
People of Abraham
Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo
Ishmael’s mother
Isaac’s mother
People of Jesus
Disciples (including Peter)
Mary’s mother
Zechariah’s wife
People of Joseph
Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon)
ʿAzīz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin)
Malik (King Ar-Rayyān ibn Al-Walīd))
Wife of ʿAzīz (Zulaykhah)
People of Solomon
Queen of Sheba
Zayd (Muhammad’s adopted son)Evil ones
Āzar (possibly Terah)
Firʿawn (Pharaoh of Moses’ time)
Jālūt (Goliath)
Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses)
Abū Lahab
Slayers of Saleh’s she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda’ ibn Dahr)Implied ornot specified
Abu Bakr
Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua
Luqman’s son
Nebuchadnezzar II
Rahmah the wife of Ayyub
Aṣḥāb al-Jannah
People of Paradise
People of the Burnt Garden
Aṣḥāb as-Sabt (Companions of the Sabbath)
Christian apostles
Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)
Companions of Noah’s Ark
Aṣḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim?
Companions of the Elephant
People of al-Ukhdūd
People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin
People of Yathrib or Medina
Qawm Lūṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah)
Nation of NoahTribes, ethnicitiesor families
Aʿrāb (Arabs or Bedouins)
ʿĀd (people of Hud)
Companions of the Rass
Qawm Tubbaʿ (People of Tubba)
People of Sabaʾ or Sheba
Thamūd (people of Saleh)
Aṣḥāb al-Ḥijr (“Companions of the Stoneland”)
Ar-Rūm (literally “The Romans”)
Banī Isrāʾīl (Children of Israel)
Muʾtafikāt (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah)
People of Ibrahim
People of Ilyas
People of Nuh
People of Shuaib
Ahl Madyan People of Madyan)
Aṣḥāb al-Aykah (“Companions of the Wood”)
Qawm Yūnus (People of Jonah)
Ya’juj and Ma’juj/Gog and Magog
Ahl al-Bayt (“People of the Household”)
Household of Abraham
Brothers of Yūsuf
Lot’s daughters
Progeny of Imran
Household of Moses
Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim
Daughters of Muhammad
Muhammad’s wives
Household of Salih
People of Fir’aun
Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)
Aṣḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)
Anṣār (Muslims of Medina who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally ‘Helpers’)
Muhajirun (Emigrants from Mecca to Medina)
People of Mecca
Wife of Abu Lahab
Children of Ayyub
Sons of Adam
Wife of Nuh
Wife of Lut
Yaʾjūj wa Maʾjūj (Gog and Magog)
Son of Nuh
Ahl as-Suffa (People of the Verandah)
Banu Nadir
Banu Qaynuqa
Banu Qurayza
Iranian people
Umayyad Dynasty
Aus and Khazraj
People of QubaReligious groups
Ahl al-Dhimmah
Majūs Zoroastrians
Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites)
Ahl al-Kitāb (People of the Book)
Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)
Ruhban (Christian monks)
Qissis (Christian priest)
Yahūd (Jews)
Ahbār (Jewish scholars)
Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad
Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham and LotLocationsMentioned
Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah (“The Holy Land”)
‘Blessed’ Land
In the Arabian Peninsula (excluding Madyan)
Al-Aḥqāf (“The Sandy Plains,” or “the Wind-curved Sand-hills”)
Iram dhāt al-ʿImād (Iram of the Pillars)
Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib)
ʿArafāt and [Al-Ḥarām]
Al-Ḥijr (Hegra)
Makkah (Mecca)
Ḥaraman Āminan (“Sanctuary (which is) Secure”)
Kaʿbah (Kaaba)
Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham)
Safa and Marwa
Sabaʾ (Sheba)
ʿArim Sabaʾ (Dam of Sheba)
Al-Jannah (Paradise, literally “The Garden”)
Jahannam (Hell)
In Mesopotamia:
Munzalanm-Mubārakan (“Place-of-Landing Blessed”)
Bābil (Babylon)
Qaryat Yūnus (“Township of Jonah,” that is Nineveh)
Door of Hittah
Madyan (Midian)
Majmaʿ al-Baḥrayn
Miṣr (Mainland Egypt)
Salsabīl (A river in Paradise)
Sinai Region or Tīh Desert
Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)
Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the ‘righthand’ side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)
Al-Buqʿah Al-Mubārakah (“The Blessed Place”)
Mount Sinai or Mount TaborReligious locations
Bayʿa (Church)
Masjid (Mosque, literally “Place of Prostration”)
Al-Mashʿar Al-Ḥarām (“The Sacred Grove”)
Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally “The Farthest Place-of-Prostration”)
Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque of Mecca)
Masjid al-Dirar
A Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly:
Masjid Qubāʾ (Quba Mosque)
The Prophet’s Mosque
Salat (Synagogue)
Al-Ḥijāz (literally “The Barrier”)
Black Stone (Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma’il
Cave of Hira
Ghār ath-Thawr (Cave of the Bull)
Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn
Bayt al-Muqaddas & ‘Ariha
Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia)
Cave of Seven Sleepers
Dār an-Nadwa
Jordan River
Nile River
Palestine River
Paradise of ShaddadPlant matter
Baṣal (Onion)
Fūm (Garlic or wheat)
Shaṭʾ (Shoot)
Sūq (Plant stem)
Zarʿ (Seed)Fruits
ʿAdas (Lentil)
Baql (Herb)
Ḥabb dhul-ʿaṣf (Corn of the husk)
Qith-thāʾ (Cucumber)
Rummān (Pomegranate)
Tīn (Fig)
Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba)
Zaytūn (Olive)
In Paradise
Forbidden fruit of AdamBushes, treesor plants
Plants of Sheba
Athl (Tamarisk)
Sidr (Lote-tree)
Līnah (Tender Palm tree)
Nakhl (Date palm)
Rayḥān (Scented plant)
Sidrat al-Muntahā
Holy books
Al-Injīl (The Gospel of Jesus)
Al-Qurʾān (The Book of Muhammad)
Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrāhīm (Scroll(s) of Abraham)
At-Tawrāt (The Torah)
Ṣuḥuf-i-Mūsā (Scroll(s) of Moses)
Tablets of Stone
Az-Zabūr (The Psalms of David)
Umm al-Kitāb (“Mother of the Book(s)”)Objects of peopleor beings
Heavenly Food of Christian Apostles
Noah’s Ark
Staff of Musa
Tābūt as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah)
Throne of Bilqis
Trumpet of IsrafilMentioned idols(cult images)
Jibt and Ṭāghūt (False god)Of Israelites
The ʿijl (golden calf statue) of IsraelitesOf Noah’s people
YaʿūqOf Quraysh

Celestial bodiesMaṣābīḥ (literally ‘lamps’):
Al-Qamar (The Moon)
Kawākib (Planets)
Al-Arḍ (The Earth)
Nujūm (Stars)
Ash-Shams (The Sun)Liquids
Māʾ (Water or fluid)
Nahr (River)
Yamm (River or sea)
Sharāb (Drink)
Events, incidents,occasions or times
Incident of Ifk
Laylat al-Qadr
Event of Mubahala
Sayl al-ʿArim (Flood of the Great Dam of Ma’rib in Sheba)
The Farewell Pilgrimage
Treaty of HudaybiyyahBattles ormilitary expeditions
Battle of al-Aḥzāb (“the Confederates”)
Battle of Badr
Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Khaybar
Battle of Uhud
Expedition of Tabuk
Conquest of Mecca
Al-Jumuʿah (The Friday)
As-Sabt (The Sabbath or Saturday)
Days of battles
Days of Hajj
Months of theIslamic calendar12 months:
Four holy months
Ash-Shahr Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred or Forbidden Month)
Al-Ḥajj (literally “The Pilgrimage”, the Greater Pilgrimage)
Al-ʿUmrah (The Lesser Pilgrimage)
Times for prayeror remembranceTimes for Duʿāʾ (‘Invocation’), Ṣalāh and Dhikr (‘Remembrance’, including Taḥmīd (‘Praising’), Takbīr and Tasbīḥ):
Al-ʿAshiyy (The Afternoon or the Night)
Al-Ghuduww (“The Mornings”)
Al-Bukrah (“The Morning”)
Aṣ-Ṣabāḥ (“The Morning”)
Al-Layl (“The Night”)
Al-ʿIshāʾ (“The Late-Night”)
Aẓ-Ẓuhr (“The Noon”)
Dulūk ash-Shams (“Decline of the Sun”)
Al-Masāʾ (“The Evening”)
Qabl al-Ghurūb (“Before the Setting (of the Sun)”)
Al-Aṣīl (“The Afternoon”)
Al-ʿAṣr (“The Afternoon”)
Qabl ṭulūʿ ash-Shams (“Before the rising of the Sun”)
Al-Fajr (“The Dawn”)
Event of Ghadir Khumm
Laylat al-Mabit
The first pilgrimage
Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)
vteSaints of the Catholic ChurchCongregation for the Causes of SaintsStages of canonization: Servant of God   →   Venerable   →   Blessed   →   SaintVirgin Mary
Mother of God (Theotokos)
Immaculate Conception
Perpetual virginity
Marian apparition
Titles of Mary
Joseph (husband)Apostles
James of Alphaeus
James the Great
Anthony of Kiev
Athanasius the Confessor
Chariton the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
Francis of Assisi
Francis Borgia
Louis Bertrand
Maximus the Confessor
Michael of Synnada
Paphnutius the Confessor
Paul I of Constantinople
Peter Claver
Seraphim of Sarov
Theophanes the ConfessorDisciples
Mary Magdalene
Priscilla and Aquila
Seventy disciplesDoctors
Gregory the Great
Augustine of Hippo
John Chrysostom
Basil of Caesarea
Gregory of Nazianzus
Athanasius of Alexandria
Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Jerusalem
John of Damascus
Bede the Venerable
Ephrem the Syrian
Thomas Aquinas
Anselm of Canterbury
Isidore of Seville
Peter Chrysologus
Leo the Great
Peter Damian
Bernard of Clairvaux
Hilary of Poitiers
Alphonsus Liguori
Francis de Sales
Peter Canisius
John of the Cross
Robert Bellarmine
Albertus Magnus
Anthony of Padua
Lawrence of Brindisi
Teresa of Ávila
Catherine of Siena
Thérèse of Lisieux
John of Ávila
Hildegard of Bingen
Gregory of NarekEvangelists
Alexander of Alexandria
Alexander of Jerusalem
Ambrose of Milan
Athanasius of Alexandria
Augustine of Hippo
Caesarius of Arles
Cappadocian Fathers
Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Rome
Cyprian of Carthage
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Cyril of Jerusalem
Damasus I
Desert Fathers
Desert Mothers
Dionysius of Alexandria
Dionysius of Corinth
Ephrem the Syrian
Epiphanius of Salamis
Fulgentius of Ruspe
Gregory the Great
Gregory of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nyssa
Hilary of Poitiers
Hippolytus of Rome
Ignatius of Antioch
Irenaeus of Lyons
Isidore of Seville
Jerome of Stridonium
John Chrysostom
John of Damascus
Maximus the Confessor
Melito of Sardis
Quadratus of Athens
Papias of Hierapolis
Peter Chrysologus
Polycarp of Smyrna
Theophilus of Antioch
Victorinus of Pettau
Vincent of Lérins
Canadian Martyrs
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Child Martyrs of Tlaxcala
Christina of Persia
Dismas the Good Thief
Forty Martyrs of England and Wales
Four Crowned Martyrs
Gerard of Csanád
Great Martyr
The Holy Innocents
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John Fisher
Korean Martyrs
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Óscar Romero
Pedro Calungsod
Perpetua and Felicity
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Pietro Parenzo
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Three Martyrs of Chimbote
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Celestine V
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Rose of LimaSee also
Calendar of saints
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Church Militant
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 Catholic Church portal
 Saints portal
vteChildren of Jacob by mother in order of birthLeah
Reuben (1)
Simeon (2)
Levi (3)
Judah (4)
Issachar (9)
Zebulun (10)
Dinah (11)Rachel
Joseph (12)
Benjamin (13)Bilhah (Rachel’s servant)
Dan (5)
Naphtali (6)Zilpah (Leah’s servant)
Gad (7)
Asher (8)
Authority control
GND: 118556746
LCCN: n82025275
NKC: xx0143333
SNAC: w6cp0jfk
VIAF: 202148389276110710871, 45094369
WorldCat Identities: lccn-n82025275

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jacob&oldid=1015706607”

ISAAC JACOB & ESAU… Part 1/5 – .

God's Story: Jacob and Esau – God's Story: Jacob and Esau.
So part of God's story is about two brothers,
and it begins like this. Once there were twins named Jacob and Esau,
and they didn't get along. They actually started fighting before they
were born! Then during birth Esau came out first, but Jacob was holding onto his heel. That's not normal. And they even looked different! The Bible says Esau's body was covered in
so much red hair it was almost like he had clothes on. Jacob's skin was smooth. Well they got even more different as they
grew up. Esau hunted animals and spent time outside. Their dad, Isaac, was a big meat eater, so
Esau was his favorite. Jacob, on the other hand, was a quiet guy
who liked to stay indoors. Their mom, Rebecca, liked Jacob the best. The Bible doesn't talk much about Jacob and
Esau as kids, but we do know Esau was lucky to be the oldest because he had what's called
a "birthright." That meant Esau would be in charge of their
family, including all their money, land, and stuff. Jacob would probably have to work for his
brother, Esau, and their dad, Isaac, would give Esau a blessing, which means Isaac would
ask God to take care of his oldest son, Esau, in an extra special way. Well you probably think Esau was pretty excited
about this, but he wasn't. In fact, one day he gave it up. He just returned from a hunting trip. Since he was out killing animals all day he
didn't have time to eat. He came home starving. Jacob was making stew so Esau said, "Quick,
give me some of that stew! I'm very hungry!" Now, Jacob was a little sneaky so he didn't
just share the stew with his hungry brother, which would've been nice, instead he said,
"First, sell me your birthright." And guess what? Esau said yes! It's a little like paying a million dollars
for a bowl of mushy soup. We don't know why Esau did that, but the Bible
says he didn't care about the birthright. But later when Isaac was really old and about
to die he wanted to ask God to take special care of his firstborn, Esau, so he told Esau
to go hunting and make him some tasty food, maybe for the last time. Now Esau wanted the birthright, so he left
right away to hunt. Meanwhile, Rebecca had heard Isaac and Esau
talking, and remember Jacob was her favorite, she wanted him to get the blessing. So she did something really sneaky, she told
Jacob, "I will prepare tasty food for your father. You take it to your father to eat and he'll
give you his blessing before he dies." See, Isaac was blind. She was telling Jacob to pretend he was Esau. But there was a slight problem with her plan. First off, Esau was hairy, so if Isaac touched
Jacob's smooth skin he would know the truth. The Bible says Esau had a certain smell too,
which might be a polite way of saying he stunk. I mean, imagine how smelly a guy would be
if he was always sweating and getting dead animal blood stuck in his clothes and matted
in his hairy skin. And this was before deodorant. So even though Isaac was blind, he might smell
Jacob or touch his smooth arm and know the truth. Well Rebecca was sneaky like Jacob. She told Jacob to put sheepskin on his arms
and wear some of Esau's smelly clothes, now Isaac would never know, and even though Isaac
wondered why the voice sounded like Jacob, guess what? The trick worked! Jacob got the blessing. Now Esau would have to work for him. As you might imagine Esau was furious. In fact, Rebecca had to help Jacob run away
so Esau wouldn't kill him. What's really crazy about this story is Jacob
messed up big time, but he really did get God's blessing. Esau even forgave him later. We don't know why God let this happen, but
the truth is we all mess up sometimes and God still wants us to be part of his story,
and that's the story of Jacob and Esau. So in case you missed it, here's the quick
version: Jacob and Esau were twins. they were different. Jacob tricked Esau. Esau sold his birthright for stew. Later Esau wanted his blessing. Rebecca helped Jacob trick his dad, Isaac. Jacob got Esau's blessing. Esau was furious. Jacob ran away. But God still blessed him. And that's a part of God's story. .